Laboratory Urinalysis and Hematology
Table of Contents


Section 1 Specimen Collection and Dipstick Analysis

Introduction 3
Some Helpful Hints 3
Specimen Procurement 4
Collection Methods 4
Specimen Containers 4
Specimen Processing 5
Definition of Urinalysis 5
Physical Properties 5
Chemical Properties 7
Sediment Analysis 8
Procedure for Performing Chemical Analysis
Using Dry Reagent Strip Method 8
Storage of Dry Reagent Strips 9
Dry Chemistry Methodologies 10
Protein Test 10
Ketones Test 11
Glucose Test 12
pH Test 13
Bilirubin Test 14
Blood Test 15
Urobilinogen Test 16
Nitrite Test 17
Specific Gravity Test 17
Leukocytes Test 18

Section 2 Microscopic Analysis
Centrifugation of Urine Specimen 20
Procedure for Centrifugation and Performing
Microscopic Analysis of a Urine Sample 20
Elements of Urine Sediment 21
White Blood Cells 22
Red Blood Cells 23
Fat Droplets 24
Epithelial Cells 24
Casts 27
Crystals 31
Other Elements Found in Urine Sediment 38
Mucus Threads 38
Spermatozoa 39
Bacteria 39
Fungal Hyphae 40
Parasites 41
Artifacts 42
Urinalysis Reference Ranges 44
Physical Properties 44
Dry Chemical Analysis 44
Microscopic Analysis 44

Hematology
Section 3 Specimen Collection
and Testing
Specimen Procurement 48
Collection Method 48
Definition of Complete Blood Count 49
Procedures for Performing Manual Testing 49
Hematocrit 49
Plasma Proteins 53
Fibrinogen 55
Peripheral Blood Smear 56

Section 4 White Blood Cells
Function and Physical Characteristics 64
Neutrophils 64
Lymphocytes 65
Monocytes 66
Eosinophils 67
Basophils 69
Band Neutrophils 70
White Blood Cell Descriptive Terms 71
Neutrophil Maturation Sequence 74

Section 5 Red Blood Cells
Function and Physical Characteristics 78
Laboratory Analysis 79
Red Blood Cell Indices 80
Red Blood Cell Terminology 82
Red Blood Cell Inclusions 90
Blood Parasites 93
Cellular Organization of the Peripheral Blood Smear 93
Red Blood Cell Production 94
Reticulocytes 96
Laboratory Findings 96
Microscopic Identification 96
Reticulocyte Count-Manual Method 98
Means of Enumeration 98
Blood Smear Evaluation Guidelines 99

Section 6 Platelets
Platelet Structure and Function 102
Laboratory Analysis 103
Specimen Collection 103
Platelet Count Methods 104
Appendix: Manufacturers List 107
Index 109

Recommended Readings 121

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