The Practice of Veterinary Anesthesia:
Small Animals, Birds, Fish and Reptiles
Donald C. Sawyer, DVM, PhD, DACVA

Chapter 1 The Preanesthetic Period
General Considerations
Physical Status
Classification of Risk Status
Patient Evaluation
Risk Assessment of the Injured Patient
Pain Management: It starts before anesthesia!
Preanesthetic Medication
Alpha2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists
Receptor Antagonists
Neuroleptanalgesia and Neuroleptanesthesia
Pentobarbital as Premedication
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Pain Management from a Surgeon’s Perspective

Chapter 2 The Induction Period
Placement Technique
Methods of Induction
Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation

Chapter 3 The Anesthetic Period
Anesthetic Machines
Breathing Systems
Assessment of Anesthetic Systems
Protocol for Machine Check Pre-Anesthesia
Cleaning and Maintenance
Flow Rates for Circle Anesthetic Systems
Scavenging Systems for Waste Anesthetic Gases
Occupational Exposure to Waste Anesthetic Gases
Hazards of Anesthetic Machines
General Principles of Inhalation Anesthesia
Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC)
Metabolism of Inhalation Anesthetics
Characteristics of Inhalation Anesthetics
Mechanical Ventilators for Small Animal Patients
Reactivity, Stability and Flammability

Chapter 4 The Anesthetic Period: Maintenance
The Anesthetic Record
Procedures Following Induction and Intubation
Perioperative Monitoring of the Anesthetized Patient
Fluid Therapy
Blood Gases and Acid-Base Relationships

Chapter 5 The Anesthetic Period: Predictable Problems
Standard Surgical Anesthetic Procedures
Shock Patient and High Risk Anesthesia
Balanced Anesthesia
Muscle Relaxation
Modifications for Breeds
Modifications for Specific Procedures
Modifications for Specific Conditions

Chapter 6 The Anesthetic Period: Other Small Animals Birds
Guinea Pig, Hamster, Rat, Mouse, Gerbi
Non-Domestic Carnivores
Anesthesia of Freshwater and Saltwater Fishes
Anesthesia and Analgesia of Reptiles

Chapter 7 The “Nobody Wins” Period: Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation
Cardiac Emergency
Crash Cart or Box

Chapter 8 The Recovery Period
Pain Management
Anesthesia Recovery
Recovery Procedures

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