Two Dimensional and M-Mode Echocardiography
Table of Contents

Section 1 The Basics
Introduction 3
Some Helpful Hints 3
Applications 4
Cardiac Anatomy 5
Orientation of the Heart in the Thorax 6

Section 2 Obtaining the Image and Subjective Assessment
Right Parasternal Long Axis Left Ventricular
Outflow View 10
Technique in the Dog 10
Modifications in Technique for the Cat 12
Subjective Assessment of the Left
Ventricular Outflow View in the Dog 13
Subjective Assessment of the Left
Ventricular Outflow View in the Cat 14
Right Parasternal Long Axis Four Chamber View 15
Technique in the Dog and Cat 15
Subjective Assessment of the Four
Chamber View in the Dog and Cat 17
Right Parasternal Transverse Views 18
Technique in the Dog and Cat 18
Subjective Assessment of the
Transverse Views in the Dog and Cat 23
Left Parasternal Cranial Left Ventricular
Outflow View 26
Technique in the Dog and Cat 26
Subjective Assessment of the Left Parasternal
Cranial Left Ventricular Outflow View 27
Left Parasternal Right Atrium and Auricle View 28
Technique in the Dog and Cat 28
Subjective Assessment of the Left Parasternal Right
Atrium and the Auricle View 29
Left Parasternal Pulmonary Artery View 30
Technique in the Dog and Cat 30
Subjective Assessment of the Left Parasternal
Pulmonary Artery View 31
Left Parasternal Cranial Transverse Heart
Base View 32
Technique in the Dog and Cat 32
Subjective Assessment of the Left Parasternal
Cranial Transverse Heart Base View 33
Left Parasternal Apical Four Chamber View 34
Technique in the Dog 34
Technique in the Cat 35
Subjective Assessment of the Left Parasternal
Apical Four Chamber View 36
Left Parasternal Apical Five Chamber View 36
Technique in the Dog and Cat 36
Subjective Assessment of the Left Parasternal
Apical Five Chamber View 38

Section 3 M-Mode Echocardiography:
A Quantitative Assessment
Principles of M-Mode Echocardiography 40
M-Mode of the Left Ventricle 40
Cursor Placement 40
Measurements 42
M-Mode of the Aorta and Left Atrium 43
Cursor Placement 43
Measurements 44
M-Mode of the Mitral Valve 45
Cursor Placement 45
Measurement 46
Assessment of M-Mode Measurements 47
Diastolic Measurements 47
Systolic Measurements 48
Types of Enlargement 48
Assessment of Left Ventricular Function 49
Fractional Shortening 49

Section 4 Echocardiographic Reference Values
Echocardiographic Reference Values for
Parameters in the Cat 56
Echocardiographic Reference Values for
Parameters Unrelated to Body Size in the Dog 57
Echocardiographic Reference Values for
Parameters Related to Body Size in the Dog 58

Section 5 Common Acquired Heart Disease
Mitral Valve Disease 68
Endocarditis 70
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy 71
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 74
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy 76
Pericardial Effusion 78
Hemangiosarcoma 80
Aortic Body Tumors 82

Section 6 Common Congenital Heart Diseases
Patent Ductus Arteriosus 86
Subaortic Stenosis 88
Pulmonic Stenosis 91
Ventricular Septal Defect 94
Tricuspid Dysplasia 96
Abbreviations 99
Recommended Readings 107

©2005 Teton NewMedia, Inc.

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