Broodmare Reproduction
Table of Contents


Section 1 Equine Reproductive Efficiency

General Principles 3
Some Helpful Hints 3
Definitions 4
Rates, Terms, and Efficiency 6
Factors Influencing Pregnancy Rate 9
Causes of Early Embryonic Death (EED) 10

Section 2 Breeding Management Systems
Terms and Terminology 16
Estrous Detection and Teasing Program 17
Behavior 20
Pasture Mating 21
Hand Mating 21
Artificial Insemination 23

Section 3 Preventive Medicine Program for Broodmares
Biosecurity 28
Immunizations 31
Equine Influenza 38
Equine Herpesvirus 38
Equine Encephalitides 40
Equine Arteritis Virus 41
Rabies 42
Rotavirus 42
Equine Strangles 43
Anthrax 43
Potomac Horse Fever, Equine Monocytic
Ehrlichiosis 44
Equine Protozoal Myelitis/Myeloencephalitis 45
Tetanus Toxoid 45
Botulism 46
Parasite Control 47
Nutrition 49

Section 4 Anatomy and Physiology
Perineal Conformation and Anatomy 56
Vulva, Vestibule, and Vagina 57
Uterus, Uterine Tubes, Ovaries and Adnexa 60
Cervix 60
Uterus 61
Oviducts 64
Ovaries 66
Adnexa 67
Physiology of Ova Production
and Fertilization 68
Folliculogenesis 68
Oogenesis 70
Fertilization 72

Section 5 Seasonality, the Estrous Cycle and its Manipulation
and Artificial Control
Seasonality 76
The Estrous Cycle 79
Points of Control 80
Progestogens 80
Prostaglandins 82
Gonadotropins 83
Options for Management 84
Estrous Synchronization Programs 84
Artificial Lighting 89
Estrus Suppression in Show
and Performance Mares 90

Section 6 Breeding Serviceability Exam of the Mare
History and Signalment 94
Physical Examination 95
External Perineum 96
Vaginal Examination 98
Rectal Exam and Ultrasonography 100
Endometrial Cytology 106
Endometrial Culture 110
Endometrial Biopsy 111
Hysteroscopy 114
Other Diagnostics 116

Section 7 Breeding Management
Estrous Detection 118
Examinations 118
Records 120
Breeding by Live Cover 123
Breeding by Artificial Insemination 125
Fresh Semen on the Farm 125
Transported Extended Cooled Semen 127
Frozen Semen 128
Low-dose Hysteroscopic Insemination 129
Ovulation Management 130
hCG 130
Deslorelin 130
ProstaglandinF2-alpha 131
Post-Breeding Examination and Treatments 131

Section 8 Pregnancy Diagnosis
Behavioral Signs of Pregnancy 134
Vaginoscopy 134
Rectal Examination for Signs of Pregnancy 135
Transrectal Ultrasonography 138
Hormonal Evaluations 141
Progesterone 141
Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG, PMSG) 142
Estogens 143
Tandem Hormons Assy 143
Relaxin 143
Management of Twin Conception 144
Early Intervention 145
Late Intervention 148
Fetal Sexing 149
Transabdominal Ultrasonography 150

Section 9 Early Embryonic Loss
Early Pregnancy Considerations 154
Age Related Considerations 155
Uterine Tube Considerations 157
Uterine Environment Considerations 158

Section 10 Infectious Causes of Endometritis and Treatment Options
Endometritis 162
Endometrosis 163
Anatomic Barriers of Defense 164
Physical Clearance Mechanism 166
Infectious Causes of Endometritis 167
Uterine Lavage 168
Uterine Ecbolics 170
Antimicrobial Therapy 170
Disinfectant Therapy 175
Alternative Therapies 176
Plasma 176
Colostrum 176
Mannose 176
Immunostimulants 177
Endometrial Curettage 177

Section 11 Non-infectious Causes of Infertility
Cytogenetic Causes of Infertility 180
Definitions 180
Etiology 180
Three Groups of Individuals 181
Intersexuality 181
Gonadal Dysgenesis 184
Hybrids 185
Ovarian Tumors and Conditions 185
Granulosa Thecal Cell Tumors 185
Hematoma 185
Cystadenoma 187
Teratomas 187
Lymphosarcoma 188
Dysgerminoma 188
Arrhenoblastoma 188
Cystic Ovaries 188
Paraovarian Cyst 189
Other Causes of Non-Infectious Infertility 190
Twinning 190
Early Embryonic Death 190
Oviduct/Salpingitis 190
Uterine Cysts 191
Uterine Tumors 193
Abnormalities of the Cervix 194
Autoantibodies to the Zona Pellucida 194
Sperm Agglutinins 195
Hypothyroidism 195
Equine Cushing’s Disease 195
Nutrition and Body Condition 196
Breeding Mismanagement 196
Transitional Season 197
Prolonged Lifespan of CL 197
Environmental Stress 197
Pregnancy 198

Section 12 Assisted Reproductive Technologies
Components of ART 200
The Realities of ART 201
Why ART in Horses? 201
Limits Imposed 201
Artificial Insemination / Intrauterine
Insemination 202
Embryo Transfer 203
Embryo Flushing Procedure 206
Embryo Shipment 209
Embryo Cryopreservation 209
Indications 210
Usual Procedure 210
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer 211
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection 213
Intrafollicular Insemination 216
In Vitro Fertilization 216
Oocyte Retrieval / Ovum Pick-up /
Follicular Aspiration 218
Oocyte Transfer or Intrafollicular Transfer
of Oocytes 219
Oocyte Cryopreservation 219
Xenogeneic Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer 221
Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer 221
Glossary of Reproductive Terms 223
Index 235

Recommended Readings 255

©2005 Teton NewMedia, Inc.

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