Equine Embryo Transfer
Patrick M. McCue, Edward L. Squires

Chapter 1
Introduction
Principles of Embryo Transfer
Breed Regulations
Potential for Success in Equine Embryo Transfer

Chapter 2
History of Equine Embryo Transfer
Embryo Transfer in Domestic Animals
History of Equine Embryo Transfer

Chapter 3
Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology
Introduction
Reproductive Anatomy
Reproductive Physiology

Chapter 4
Management of the Donor Mare
Selection of the Donor Mare
Seasonal Reproductive Management
Reproductive Evaluation of Donor Mares
Reproductive Management of Donor Mares
Reproductive Problems in Donor Mares
Additional Donor Management Considerations

Chapter 5
Superovulation
Introduction
A Brief History of Superovulation in the Mare
Recombinant Equine FSH
Protocol for Superovulation with eFSH or reFSH
Factors Affecting Response to FSH
Potential Problems Associated with FSH Treatment

Chapter 6
Embryo Collection
Introduction
Embryo Collection Procedure
Problems Associated with the Flush Attempt
Searching for an Embryo
Embryo Collection Rate
Re-flush Options
Prostaglandin Administration after
Embryo Collection Procedure

Chapter 7
Factors Affecting Embryo Recovery
Introduction
Reproductive Health of the Donor Mare
Age of the Donor Mare
Semen Type
Embryo Collection Day
Flush Technique
Number of ET Cycles per Season
Number of Ovulations
Clinical Expertise

Chapter 8
Embryo Handling
Technique

Chapter 9
Evaluation of Embryos
Introduction
Embryo Development and Morphologic Characteristics
Embryo Assessment
Developmental Stages
Unfertilized Oocytes
Non-Embryonic Structures
Embryo Grading
Determination of Embryo Size
Small for Gestational Age (SFGA) Embryos
Photographs of Embryos

Chapter 10
Cooled-Transported Embryos
Introduction
Current Techniques for Cooled-Transport of Equine Embryos
Pregnancy Rates in a Commercial Embryo Transfer Program
Pregnancy Rate – Fresh vs. Cooled Embryos

Chapter 11
Cryopreservation of Equine Embryos
Introduction
Effect of Embryo Diameter on Cryopreservation
Methods of Embryo Cryopreservation
Pregnancy Rates after Transfer of
Cryopreserved Equine Embryos
Factors Affecting Pregnancy Rates

Chapter 12
Management of Recipients
Introduction
Acquisition of Recipients
Selection and Evaluation of Recipients
Initial Evaluation of Potential Recipients
Initial Management of Selected Recipients
Housing of Recipients
Seasonal Management
Synchronization of Recipients and Donors
Routine Examination of Recipient Mares

Chapter 13
Transfer of Equine Embryos
Introduction
Selection of the Recipient Mare
Preparation of the Recipient Mare for Transfer
Transfer Technique
Examination of the Transfer Instrument after Transfer
Management of the Recipient Mare after Transfer

Chapter 14
Pregnancy Examination after Transfer
Introduction
Ultrasound Pregnancy Examinations
Ovarian Examination
Progesterone Evaluation
Abnormalities Detected During Pregnancy Examination

Chapter 15
Pregnancy Rates after Transfer
Introduction
Pregnancy Rate after Transfer
Pregnancy Rate – Embryo Grade
Pregnancy Rate – Transfer Technician
Pregnancy Rate – Other Embryo Transfer Centers
Pregnancy Loss
Live Foal Rates

Chapter 16
Factors Affecting Pregnancy Rates
Introduction
Embryo Factors
Age and Reproductive Status of the Donor Mare
Technician and Method of Transfer
Recipient Factors
Synchrony of the Recipient
Season

Chapter 17
Disease Transmission
Introduction
Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV)
Equine Herpes Virus 1 (EHV-1)
Risk Potential for Disease Transmission
Embryo Processing (Bovine)
Additional Considerations for Equine Embryos

Chapter 18
International Transfer of Embryos
Introduction
Transport Options
Regulations
Information Resources

Chapter 19
Related Embryo Technologies
Introduction
Embryo Micromanipulation (Embryo Splitting)
Oocyte Transfer (OT)
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
Autogenous Transfer of ICSI Produced Embryos
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (Cloning)
Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnoses (PGD)

Chapter 20
Future Directions of Equine Embryo Transfer
Introduction
Superovulation
Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF)
Oviductal Abnormalities
Cryopreservation of Embryos
Assisted Reproduction Technologies
Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnoses (PGD)

Appendix I
Embryo Transfer Supplies and Equipment

Appendix II
Formulary for Equine Embryo Transfer

Index

 


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